Tag Archives: archaeology

Research Trip to Burma

One of the sub-projects of our ERC grant that is specifically based at SOAS is the decipherment of Pyu language of ancient Burma. Nathan Hill (Reader in Tibetan and Historical Linguistics) is the SOAS principal investigator. He is working on the project with postdoctoral researcher Marc Miyake.

Early on the project benefited from the generosity of Prof. Janice Stargardt, an archaeologist at Cambridge University, who shared with us her collection of rubbings of Pyu epigraphical monuments. These rubbings were digitized by the British Library and are now available to project members.

We have joined forces with another project, funded by the Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation and administered by the École française d’Extrême-Orient, also working on the decipherment of Pyu. In November the two projects took a research trip to Burma with photographer James Miles to get high resolution scans of the inscriptions. The trip took us up and down the country—Rangoon, Pegu, Naypyidaw, Mandalay, Myintha, Pagan, Halin, Beikthano, Prome, and Sandoway. Inscriptions were documented using three techniques: RTI (Reflectance Transformation Imaging) for relatively flat inscriptions, photogrammetry 3D modeling for round or curved objects, and normal photography for silver and gold objects. Currently 165 inscriptions have been identified; we have high resolution images of all but three.

Current work is focussed on transliterating inscription and converting the transliterations into XML. We are paying special attention to bilingual and multilingual objects. At the moment we are studying a Sanskrit-Pyu bilingual text. Each Sanskrit word is followed by a gloss in Pyu. For instance, the Sanskrit pronoun aham ‘I’ (cognate to English I) was glossed in Pyu as gayṁḥ, which must mean ‘I’.

Clockwise from top left: Photogrammetry of a Buddha statue at the National Museum in Naypyidaw (James Miles); RTI of a quadralingual inscription at the monastery in Myintha (James Miles); FTI of a quadralingual inscription at the Myazedi pagoda in Pagan (Marc Miyake and James Miles); Group photo at the Petaw monastery in Myintha (Arlo Griffith, Julian Wheatley, James Miles, Ashin Nyarna Daza (abbot), Bob Hudson, Nathan Hill, Marc Miyake, Wai Lin Thu, Ne Myo Win)

Bodhgaya Workshop

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In May we had a workshop on Bodhgaya, the famous site of the Buddha’s enlightenment, which has been a place of pilgrimage for many centuries, though it fell into dilapidation with the decline of Buddhism in India from around the 14th century, before its renovation in the 19th century. The workshop took a multidisciplinary approach to the site, with papers on the archaeological explorations of Bodhgaya, objects that were left there by pilgrims, the oldest known Buddha image from Bodhgaya, inscriptions of donors and others, and descriptions of the site by Tibetan and Burmese visitors over the centuries.

The papers given at the workshop were:

  • Michael Willis: “Introduction to the Bodhgaya Archive and Cunningham Collections.”
  • Robert Bracey: “The Amulet Box from the Vajrāsana.”
  • Gergely Hidas: “Dhāraṇī seals in the Cunningham Collection.”
  • Dániel Balogh: “Pīṭhīpati Jayasena’s Pedestal Puzzle.”
  • Vincent Tournier: “The Conception of the Buddha’s Awakening in the Kattacheruvu plates of Pṛthivīśrīmūla.”
  • Sam van Schaik: “Tibetan Visitors to Bodhgaya.”
  • Tilman Frasch: “Burmese Records: Potential and Pitfalls.”

Spatial technologies for research on past societies

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In April, Anne Casile (Institut de recherche pour le développement, Paris), Michael Willis and Jason Hawkes (The British Museum) introduced the use of spatial technologies in the study of past societies and discussed the value and applicability of spatial analyses for this project. The workshop commenced with a valuable introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which play an increasingly important role in research across the arts, humanities and social sciences. In its simplest sense, a GIS offers a powerful set of tools for the spatial analysis, interpretation, display and management of cultural, geographic and thematic data. A wide range of evidence can be integrated into a GIS; yet the analyses that can be carried out are defined by the scale and resolution of the data that are incorporated. As such, the most commonly used sources of spatial data, along with their potential and limitations were reviewed. Then, a number of issues were raised pertaining to the dissemination of this data using web-mapping and GIS-based interfaces.

Following discussion of these broad issues, the second part of the workshop focused on the use of a spatial approach and application of a GIS to the study of the Vidarbha region in India. This was one of many regions that witnessed the spread of a Sanskrit cultural package—embodied by the spread of copperplate inscriptions recording land grants to Brahmins—during the fourth to seventh centuries C.E. Preliminary surveys of the find spots of these inscriptions by Riza Abbas (Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies) resulted in the discovery of a number of archaeological sites. This has highlighted the potential of examining their wider archaeological and geographical contexts. Building on this work, the different types and scales of data that we have for the study of this region (spatial, textual and archaeological) were reviewed. Consideration of this data, and the ways they can be managed and interpreted in a GIS framework, has formed the basis for the design of a programme of archaeological fieldwork in the region. This work was briefly introduced, before all of the issues raised were discussed.